The Son of God – Deity
The Word – Preexistence & Activity
Lord – Sovereignty
The Son of Man – Humanity
The Christ – Official Title and Mission
Son of David – Royal Lineage
Prophet – Mar. 6:15; Joh. 4:19; Joh. 6:14; Joh. 9:17
Priest – Heb. 2:14-16; Heb. 8:3; Eph. 1:6
King – Gen. 14:18-19; Heb. 7:1-3; Psa. 110:1-4; Zec. 6:13
III. Work Mat. 1:21; Joh. 1:29; 1Co. 15:1-3
IV. The 2nd Person
Co-Eternal, Co-Substantial, Co-Equal With Each Of The Person Of Trinity (Nicea 345 AD)
Christ’s Two Natures: Unmixed, Unchanged, Undivided, Inseparable. (Chalcedon 451 AD)
V. Christological Heresies (in bold, acceptable)
1. Ebionism – Denied deity and pre-existence of Christ.
2. Docetism – Denied His humanity; affirmed His deity; Jesus appeared human but was really divine.
3. Arianism – Denied deity; Christ was the first and highest created being homoiousia, not homoousia. He is subordinate to the Father.
4. Appolinarianism – Denied human spirit of Jesus. The divine Logos took the place of the human mind. Affirmed Christ’s deity and real humanness (not complete humanness).
5. Nestorianism – Denied union of natures, the unity of Christ’s person. The union was moral, not organic-thus tow persons. The human was completely controlled by the divine. Distinguished human Jesus, who died, from Divine Son, who cannot die.
6. Eutychianism – Denied distinction of natures; monophysitist; the human nature was swallowed by the divine to create a new third nature. Maintained the unity of Christ’s person.
VI. Kenosis – Phi. 2:7: Lit. to empty oneself, KJV: ‘made himself of no reputation,’ i.e., to take the form of servant, of man. The context means that Christ being the Son of God chose to stoop down to live a life of a servant, and being tested and found obedient in all, is now exalted above all creatures as the One in whom the will of God is finally accomplished; He is the embodiment and finality of divine will; and, therefore, worthy of rulership and judgment. Christ lost neither the divine consciousness nor the divine attributes, neither did he withdraw from divine activity in the kenotic event.
Other Kenotic Theories
1. Christ emptied Himself of Divine Nature.
2. Christ emptied Himself of Eternal Form (which He exchanged for a temporal one).
3. Christ emptied Himself of relative attributes, namely omnipotence, omniscience, and omnipresence.
4. Christ emptied Himself of the integrity of infinite divine existence. The Logos became assumed dual consciousness at incarnation: the divine continued apart from the human, while the human was unaware of the cosmic functions of Deity.
5. Christ emptied Himself of divine activity by turning over all His duties to the Father.
6. Christ emptied Himself of the actual exercise of divine prerogatives. He retained His divine consciousness but renounced the conditions of infinity and its form.
1. Christ emptied Himself of the use of divine attributes though possessing them. He chose not to use them.
2. Christ emptied Himself of the independent exercise of the divine attributes. He worked in submission to the Father.
3. Christ emptied Himself of the insignia of Majesty, the prerogatives of deity, the outward form of deity.
VII. The Person of Christ
1. Preincarnate – Pre-existence (Joh. 1:1; 1Jo. 1:1; Joh. 17:5). Participation in creation (Gen. 1:26; Pro. 8:30; Col. 1:15; Joh. 1:3; Col. 1:16; 1Co. 8:6). Christophanies (Gen.18,19; Hos.1:7; Gen.22,31; Exo. 3:2; Exo. 14:19; Num. 22:22; Judg.6).
2. Divine Nature – Divine Attributes (eternal-Joh. 1:1; Joh. 8:58; Joh. 17:5; omnipresent- Mat. 28:20; Eph. 1:23; omniscient- Jn.16:30;21:17; omnipotent- Jn.5:19; immutable- Heb. 1:12; Heb. 13:8). Divine Offices (Creator- Joh 1:3; Col 1:16; Sustainer- Col. 1:17; Heb. 1:3). Divine Prerogatives (forgives sin – Mat. 9:2; Luk. 7:47; raises dead- Joh. 5:25; Joh. 11:25; executes judgement- Joh. 5:22). Identified with OT YHWH – I AM (Joh. 8:58; Joh. 12:41; Joh. 8:24; Joh. 8:50-58). Divine Names (Alpha & Omega-Rev. 22:13; I AM –Joh. 8:58; Immanuel- Mat. 1:22; Lord-Mat. 7:21; Son of God- Joh. 10:36; God- Joh. 1:1; 2Pe. 1:1; Tit. 2:13; 1Jo. 5:20). Divine Relations (Image of God- Col. 1:15; Hb.1:3; One with Father- Joh. 10:30). Accepts Divine Worship (Mat. 14:33; Mat. 28:9; Joh. 20:28-29). Claims to be God (Jn.8:58; Joh. 10:30; Joh. 17:5 – in such case, He is either liar, lunatic, or the Lord that He claims to be, but never can be regarded as merely a good moral teacher).
3. Human Nature – Human Birth (Mat. 1:18; Mat. 2:11). Human Development (Luk. 2:50-52). Essential Elements of Human Nature (Human body – Mat. 26:12; Joh. 2:21; Reason & will – Mat. 26:38; Mar. 2:8). Human Names (Jesus -Mat. 1:21; Son of Man- Mat. 8:20; Mat. 11:18; Son of Abraham- Mat. 1:1; Son of David- Mt.1:1). Sinless Infirmities of Human Nature (weariness-Joh. 4:6; hunger- Mat. 4:2; Mat. 21:18; thirst- Joh. 19:28; temptation- Mt. 4; Heb. 2:18). Repeatedly Called a Man (Joh. 1:30; Joh. 4:9; Joh. 10:38).
4. Union of Natures – Theanthropic – The person of Christ is theanthropic; He has two natures, divine and human, in one person. Personal – Hypostatic union, constituting one personal substance: two natures but one person. Includes the Human and Divine Qualities and Acts – Both the human and divine qualities and acts may be ascribed to Christ under either of His natures. Constant Presence of Both Humanity and Divinity- His natures cannot be separated.
5. Character – Absolutely Holy (His human nature was created holy –Luk. 1:35; He committed no sin – 1Pe. 2:22; He always pleased the Father- Joh. 2:22). Possesses Genuine Love (Laid down His life – Joh. 15:13; His love surpasses all knowledge- Eph. 3:19). Truly Humble – Phi. 2:5-8. Meek- Mat. 11:29. Balanced – ‘He was grave without being melancholy. He was joyful without being frivolous.’ Prayerful – Mat. 14:23; Luk. 6:12). Incessant Worker – Joh. 5:17; Joh. 9:4). Stern (Mat. 16:33; Mat. 23:13-36). Wise (Mat. 22:19; Joh. 2:24; Joh. 7:1). Compassionate (Mat. 14:14; Mat. 15:32; Mat. 20:34).
VIII. Impeccability of Christ
Definitions: Peccability – Christ could sin; Impeccability – Christ could not sin. Questions: If Jesus could not sin, how could He be truly human? Vs. If Jesus could sin, how could He be truly divine?
Points of Agreement: Christ’s temptations were real (Heb. 4:15); Christ experienced struggle (Mat. 26:36-46); Christ did not sin (2Co. 5:21; Heb. 7:26; Jam. 5:6; 1Pe. 2:22; 1Pe. 3:18).
Conclusion – Impeccability : Temptation implies possibility of sin in general (humans) but not in specific (Christ). For instance, the testing of gold implies the possibility of things not being gold in general, but not the possibility of pure gold not being pure gold. The end of testing gold is to distinguish true gold from false gold. Thus, Christ’s not falling in sin proves He could not sin. Since, Jesus is God and sin is rebellion against God, Jesus could not sin, for it is impossible for Him to rebel against Himself, unless His omniscience and omnipotence were brought into question. Thus, being human, He was tempted, but being divine and undivided in His moral nature, He was essentially holy and so could not sin.