Dec 062016
 

1alcoWords used as “wine” in old and new testaments

Yayin – generic term for the “juice of the grape”, either fermented or unfermented; meaning “what is pressed out”.

Tirosh – “freshly expressed grape-juice in its natural condition”. Translated in the authorized version (a.v.) As “new wine” eleven times; “wine” twenty-six times; “sweet wine” once; and “vintage” three times. Always translated as “new wine” in the revised version (r.v.). Not used for fermented wine.

Shekar – hebrew: “what satiates, intoxicates”. A saccharine drink rendered as “strong drink” (21x), and “strong wine” (1x). Described as a liquor made from dates, barley, etc. And always as a curse. In the greek old testament (lxx) rendered as ‘sikera’, or sometimes as ‘methusma’ or ‘methé’; and once as ‘oinos’. Occurs only once in the new testament (n.t.).

Asis – “anything pressed on or trodden out”. Rendered as “juice” (1x), “new wine” (2x), and “sweet wine” (2x). Not necessarily unfermented; not to be confused with “tirosh” (isaiah 49:26; joel 1:5; joel 3:18; amos 9:13).

Ashishah – denotes “a cake of raisins”. Rendered wrongly in a.v. As “flagons”, but corrected in the revised versions.

Chemer – “a thick, sticky syrup; foaming juice”. Indicates all kinds of wine (isaiah 27:2).

Chamar – the aramaic form, used in ezra 6:9 and daniel 5:1-4, literally means “foaming” and denotes fermented wine.

Sobe – “anything sucked in or up”. Probably indicated inspissated or boiled wines. Non-intoxicating beverage. ‘Sobe-yayin’ – lit. “soakers of wine”.

Shemer – “what is preserved; the sediment”. Rendered as “dregs”, “lees”, or “wine in the lees” (see isaiah 25:6).

Nasek – “drink offering”. Lit. “that which is poured out; a libation”.

Mimsak – “anything mixed”. Rendered “drink-offering”, or “mixed wine” (isaiah 65:11).

Yeqeb – originally a vat or trough; then used as a wine-press or wine-vat. Occurs 16 times (e.g. Numbers 18:27).

Enab – ripe or round grape, or grape-cake (hosea 3:1).

Chomets – vinegar, sour or unripe grapes (greek: ‘oxos’).

Misteh – general term for beverage, especially wine (ezra 3:7; daniel 1:10).

Oinos – generic term (used in the lxx) for all kinds of wine except ‘shekar’. Also occurs in n.t. (greek) 32 times.

Sikera – greek: “strong drink” (see ‘shekar’).

Gleukos – used only once (acts 2:13), as “new wine”; corresponds to fermented.

Methuo – to be “drunk”, or “filled to the full” (greek).

Inferences to wines as used in scripture

Favourable to use: yayin:- genesis 49:11, genesis 49:12; proverbs 9:2, proverbs 9:5; song of solomon 7:9; isaiah 55:1; hosea 14:7; zechariah 10:7. Chemer:- isaiah 27:2 (some manuscripts (m.s.s.) Use ‘chemed’, meaning pleasant). Tirosh:- joel 2:19. Oinos:- revelation 6:6.

Unfavourable to use or character: yayin:- deuteronomy 32:33; psalm 60:3; psalm 75:3; psalm 78:65:proverbs 4:17; isaiah 29:9; isaiah 51:21; zechariah 9:15. Shekar:- isaiah 29:9. Asis:- isaiah 49:26;jeremiah 48:11; zephaniah 1:12. Shemer:- jeremiah 48:12; zephaniah 1:12. Oinos:- revelation 14:8;revelation 14:10; revelation 16:19; revelation 17:2; revelation 18:3; revelation 19:15.

Specifically as a blessing: yayin:- psalm 104:15; amos 9:14. Asis:- joel 3:18; amos 9:13. Chemer:-deuteronomy 32:14. Shemer:- isaiah 25:6. Tirosh:- genesis 27:28; numbers 18:12; deuteronomy 7:13; deuteronomy 11:14; proverbs 3:10; isaiah 65:8; jeremiah 31:12; hosea 2:8-9; joel 2:19;zechariah 9:17.

Definitely bad: yayin:- leviticus 10:9; proverbs 20:1. Shekar:- proverbs 20:1.

Associated with food: yayin:- genesis 14:18; genesis 27:25; judges 19:19; 1 samuel 10:3; 1 samuel 16:20; 1 samuel 25:18; 2 samuel 16:1-2; 1 chronicles 12:40; 2 chronicles 2:10; 2 chronicles 2:15; 2 chronicles 11:11; nehemiah 5:15; nehemiah 13:15; job 1:13, job 1:18; ecclesiastes 9:7;isaiah 22:13; jeremiah 40:10, jeremiah 40:12; daniel 1:5, daniel 1:8, daniel 1:16; daniel 10:3. Yeqev:- deuteronomy 16:13; deuteronomy 15:14; numbers 18:27, numbers 18:30. Tirosh:- genesis 27:28, genesis 27:37; numbers 18:12; deuteronomy 7:13; deuteronomy 11:14; deuteronomy 12:17;deuteronomy 14:23; deuteronomy 18:4; deuteronomy 28:51; deuteronomy 33:28; 2 kings 18:32; 2 chronicles 31:5; 2 chronicles 32:28; nehemiah 5:11; nehemiah 10:37, nehemiah 10:39; nehemiah 13:5, nehemiah 13:12; psalm 4:7; isaiah 36:17; isaiah 62:8; jeremiah 31:12; hosea 2:8-9; hosea 2:22; hosea 7:14; joel 2:19, joel 2:24; zechariah 9:17; micah 6:15; haggai 1:11; joel 1:10.

Consequences bad: yayin:- genesis 19:32-35; 1 samuel 1:14-15; 1 samuel 25:37; 2 samuel 13:28;esther 1:7, esther 1:10; proverbs 23:30; proverbs 31:4, proverbs 31:6; isaiah 5:11-12; isaiah 5:22. Oinos:- 1 peter 4:3.

Exhortation to drink: yayin:- song of solomon 5:1. Shekar:- song of solomon 5:1 (lxx translates here as ‘methuo’). Oinos:- 1 timothy 5:23.

Wine forbidden: yayin:- proverbs 20:1; proverbs 23:31; numbers 6:3-4; judges 13:4, judges 13:7,judges 13:14. Shekar:- numbers 6:3; judges 13:4; judges 13:7; luke 1:15 (sikera). Oinos:- 1 timothy 3:3; ephesians 5:18.

Forbidden to priests: yayin:- leviticus 10:9; jeremiah 35:6, jeremiah 35:8, jeremiah 35:14; proverbs 23:20; ezekiel 44:21. Shekar:- leviticus 10:9. Oinos:- titus 1:7.

Inferences of different kinds of wine: be-kahl yayin:- nehemiah 5:18; song of solomon 8:2.

Used for a drink-offering: yayin:- exodus 29:40; leviticus 23:13; numbers 15:5, numbers 15:7,numbers 15:10; numbers 28:14; deuteronomy 32:38; 1 samuel 1:24; hosea 9:4. Shekar:- numbers 28:7. Chamar:- ezra 6:9; ezra 7:22.

Unspecified nature: yayin:- deuteronomy 29:6; joshua 9:4, joshua 9:13; 1 chronicles 27:27;nehemiah 2:1; esther 5:6; esther 7:2, esther 7:7-8; job 32:19; proverbs 21:17; ecclesiastes 2:3;ecclesiastes 10:19; song of solomon 1:2, song of solomon 1:4; song of solomon 4:10; isaiah 56:12; jeremiah 35:2, jeremiah 35:5; ezekiel 27:18; amos 2:8, amos 2:12; amos 6:6; hosea 4:11;micah 2:11; haggai 2:12. Shekar:- deuteronomy 29:6; isaiah 56:12; micah 2:11. Yeqeb – numbers 18:27; numbers 18:30; deuteronomy 15:14; judges 7:25; 2 kings 6:27; job 24:11; isaiah 5:2;jeremiah 48:33; hosea 9:2; zechariah 14:10. Ashishah:- hosea 3:1. Asis:- isaiah 49:26. Sobe:- hosea 4:18; isaiah 1:22. Tirosh:- hosea 4:11. Oinos:- matthew 9:17; mark 2:22; luke 5:37-38; luke 7:33;luke 10:34; john 2:3, john 2:9-10; john 4:46; romans 14:21; 1 timothy 5:23.

By edith a. Kerr (b.a., b.d.)

Source: ‘alcohol and the scriptures’, temperance committee of the presbyterian church of victoria, 1966